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Verb tenses / времена глаголов.

Contents:
> Present tenses / Настоящие времена
> Past tenses / Прошедшие времена
> Future tenses / Будущие времена

Present tenses / Настоящие времена
Present simple (indefinite): lives, live
This is used:
  • to talk about permanent truths
    They live in Madrid.
    The sun sets in the west.
  • to state scientific facts
    Water boils at 100C.
  • to talk about routines and frequency
    She always gets up at 8 a.m.
  • with certain verbs not normally used in the present continuous, e.g. know, like, think, want
    I like dogs better than cats.
    I don't know the answer.
  • to give instructions
    You turn left at the corner.
  • to tell a joke or a story
    The Englishman goes up to Russian and says…
  • to talk about fixed future events
    Our plane leaves at five.
  • to make suggestions
    Why don't they go on a day-trip?
Present continuous: is/are living
This is used to:
  • talk about what is happening at/around the time of speaking
    She is having breakfast right now.
    They are living in Moscow for the time being.
  • talk about a current situation
    The phone isn't working.
  • talk about changing state
    The world's climate is getting warmer.
  • talk about planned future arrangements
    She's arriving at airport tomorrow at noon.
  • express irritation about someone's behavior
    He is always complaining about something.
  • give a commentary on a performance or activity
    She's taking off her tracksuit and…
Present perfect simple (indefinite): have/has lived
This is used:
  • to talk about events which happened at an indefinite time in the past
    I've had lunch, thank you.
  • to express events which have recently happened
    Max has just arrived home from work.
  • with 'for' and 'since' and expressions of time
    They've lived in London for fifteen years.
    They have only had a car since last August.
  • with adverbs 'just', 'already', 'yet'
    I've already sent a postcard.
    He hasn't gone home yet.
  • to talk about present result of a past activity
    You've lost weight.
    I've hurt my arm.
  • [often] with a superlative to talk about experience
    This is the worst meal I've ever eaten.
  • with first time
    It is first time I have been at the USA.
Present perfect continuous: have/has been living
This is used to:
  • talk about an activity which began in the past and is still going on
    We've been living here since 1999.
  • talk about an activity which began in the past and may have recently finished
    It's been raining quite hard during the night.
  • talk about a past activity recently finished, the result of which is evident
    Have you been frying onions?
Past tenses / Прошедшие времена
Past simple (indefinite): lived
This is used:
  • to talk about a past event which took place at a definite point in time
    We went to the theatre last night.
    Did you have a nice weekend?
  • to narrate events in sequence
    Jec got home, opened the door, and found the house comletely empty.
  • to report statements and questions
    He said that he was a stranger.
    She asked if I knew her aunt.
  • after It's (high) time
    It's time I went to my room.
  • after I'd rather
    I'd rather you didn't pay for me.
  • after I wish and If only when expressing regret about present facts
    If only I was taller.
    I wish I had a car.
Past continuous: was/were living
This is used to:
  • talk about an event which was in progress when another event happened
    When I was walking in the park, I heard a cry.
  • give background to an event
    I looked out of the window. It was shining.
  • talk about an interrupted event in the past
    She phoned while I was having lunch.
Past perfect simple: had lived
This is used:
  • to talk about an event which happened before another event in the past
    When I arrived, Mike had already left.
  • After I wish and If only for past regrets
    I wish I'd learnt Spanish at college.
  • in if clauses in past conditionals
    If you hadn't woken me, I'd have missed my train.
Past perfect continuous: had been living
This is used to:
  • emphasise the continuous or repeated nature of an event which happened before another event in the past
    He failed the exam because he'd been going out every evening.
Future tenses / Будущие времена
Future simple (indefinite): will/shall live
This is used to:
  • express future prediction
    It'll rain tomorrow.
    We'll be there by Monday night.
  • promise
    I'll write when/as soon as I get there.
  • accept warnings and advice
    Don't worry I will/I won't. you.
  • make a decision
    I'll call him tomorrow.
  • order in a restaurant
    I'll have the chicken.
  • threaten
    I'll kill you.
  • offer
    I'll get it for you.
  • refuse
    I won't do it!
  • request
    Will you tell him for me?
  • talk about consequences
    If you ask her, she'll tell you.
  • offer help
    Shall I wash up for you?
  • ask for suggestions
    What shall we have for lunch?
  • make decisions
    I shall let you know the results in the morning.
Future continuous (progressive): will be living
This is used to:
  • talk about an event which will be in progress at a particular time in the future
    When we get there, they'll be getting ready for the party.
Future perfect: will have lived
This is used to:
  • talk about an event which will be over or completed at a specified time in the future
    I'll have typed it by tomorrow.
    The film will have started by the time we get there.
Future perfect continuous: will have been living
This is used to:
  • talk about an event which will not be over or completed at a specified time in the future
    I'll have been writing a letter by 5 o'clock tomorrow.
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